First Monday

The open code market

The open code market by Jordi Carrasco-Muñoz

The Open Code Market (OCM) is both an open market for code, as well as a market for open code. However, it aims mainly to become a free market for software, as well as a market for Free Software. The OCM introduces into the Free/Open Source movement an economic incentive, to help align the priorities of Free/Open Source developers with those of the end users.


Rationale for the Open Code Market
The Open Code Market (OCM)
Players in the Open Code Market
Functioning of the Market
Who is Who in the Market
Proposed Projects
Partners and Investors
Web sites





Scratching itches

Any computer user will have often experienced many times to have a new software application, an extra feature in their favourite computer programme, or to have programmes behave in a different way. For users without extensive programming skills, this can be very frustrating.

Users today have little other option than to hope that some developer will realise their needs and decide to dedicate considerable time, effort, and financial resources to generate the required software package, feature or patch.

Among the current possibilities to solve this very real need, the most promising solution is the GPL-License Software, for it offers an unbeatable combination of freedom and openness. The GNU General Public License (GPL) provides all users with four basic freedoms, namely:

A program is free software if users have all of these freedoms. Thus, you should be free to redistribute copies, either with or without modifications, either gratis or charging a fee for distribution, to anyone anywhere. Being free to do these things means (among other things) that you do not have to ask or pay for permission." (Source: The Free Software Definition)

In the spirit of a free market and true to its desire to offer maximum freedom of choice, the Open Code Market (OCM) will be also open to other licenses, not only GPL. However, it is logical to assume that the GPL license should become the most commonly used: Because it allows absolute freedom in the re-using of the computer code, developers will use as much GPL code as possible to minimise their coding workload, creating a virtuous cycle of an ever-increasing repository of GPL Software, ready to be improved, or recycled and recombined into new software.

Since the user of GPL Software is the main beneficiary of its protections (including zero copyright fees), it will become the only way for users and organisations to ascertain a priori that by using this software they not breaking copyright laws, and cannot be sued, penalised, or espied upon, under the pretext of copyright infringement.

But even if the Free/Open Source has the potential to become the future standard in software and other areas, its success is, by no means, guaranteed. Several inefficiencies must first be dealt with. For example, the current method for developing Free Software is, so far, not an ideal solution to "scratch the itches" of the vast majority of users: Since most developers of Free Software work "pro bono", in their own free time, they prioritise their own itches; which may, or may not, coincide with those of the end user, leading to inefficiencies in the allocation of resources. At this stage of its evolution, it is also the normal thing to happen.

The OCM addresses this inefficiency by introducing a monetary incentive. Thus, GPL end-users become customers by attaching a monetary value to the creation of the software they commission. From the GPL developer’s perspective this should be a welcome development, since they can continue doing what they do best, while being paid for their efforts and skills. The OCM should not be seen as a quick path to riches; more like an added bonus, and a deserved recognition to developers.

Because complex software is both expensive and labourious to create, the OCM also encourages the creation of "like-minded groups" or syndicates of customers and developers; leading to a reduction of cost and effort for all. Other similar groupings (such as Liberto Syndicates) are also encouraged.

While at least one Open Code Market will be created, the intention is to generate multiple interlinked OCMs, leading to a global repository of software as well as to a system of global tenders for software development. All OCMs must adhere to a common set of rules and principles. From a business perspective (for this is, after all, a business model) the OCM will generate income through commissions on transactions and services. Since a diversity of OCMs will keep commissions low, there will be a need for high volume of work to generate sizable profits for investors. However, the F/OSS community will benefit from the software commissioned, and released through the OCM, from day one.

Finally, the OCM should lead to important gains in efficiency and in the amount and quality of Free Software released, as well as to the empowerment of GPL users and developers; by providing the former with the features and programmes they need — at a minimum cost — and by allowing the latter to become entrepreneurs as individual developers, members of a syndicate, or by starting with their own Open Code Market, and to receive deserved compensation for their work.



Rationale for the Open Code Market

Evolution and needs

The Free Software/Open Source movement has evolved considerably during the last few years, owing a great deal of its current popularity to the GNU/ Linux operating system. It is logical to assume that in a few years time, most individuals and organisations will be running their computers on a combination of Free and propriety software, with a tendency towards less propriety software. As soon as Linux populates the desktops of organisations and private users, the number of Free/Open Source applications will grow exponentially.

However, we are still far from the moment when Free Software will be the standard software in most PCs. As more and more members of the F/OSS community realise the incredible strides the F/OSS has taken over the last few years in particular, there is a growing feeling of inevitability in the world-wide adoption of F/OSS. This complacency is dangerous: F/OSS has the potential to get to this finish line, yet there is no guarantee it will. History is full of good ideas that should have been adopted, and F/OSS must not become another one of them.

Adoption of F/OSS by large companies and organisations does not guarantee it will make the final step into the individual users’ desktops, UNIX is an example of this. The transition to the mass market will be lead mainly by small and medium enterprises, as well as by the usual crowd of early IT adopters. And F/OSS can do much better to accelerate its adoption by such key users, as well as the general public. A must, if F/OSS is to become ubiquitous.

Users and enterprises

Until recently, when multinational companies have started to fund large groups of engineers to develop F/OSS software, the community has been (and still is) mostly comprised by volunteers who have donated their time and considerable skills to advance the idea of Free Software and/or Open Source. These are the true heroes and creators of the bright future F/OSS has today.

However, a tipping point is approaching: The moment (dreaded by many) when the F/OSS community will change, after turning a hobby or community-lead effort into a business. Yet this must happen if F/OSS is to become the standard software in computers and other machines. There is no other way around it.

Of the several problems F/OSS faces today, one is the fact that it is free. Not as in freedom, but as in free beer. Both private users and business are at a loss when it is explained that there are thousands of people developing Free Software, for free. The immediate reaction is of disbelief, followed by the assumption that the software must be of low quality. Even if the conversation does not end here, one can expect two logic questions: The first is: "OK, but if I run into trouble, who do I call?" and the second is: "If these people are not getting any money from it, how do I know the software will not be discontinued? Hence, how can I then rely on it?".

Both questions must and can be answered: consumers and businesses work for money, and they mistrust people who do not. Users — as clients — want to be in control, and in their minds money is the ultimate form of control. After all, most of them would not put up with their boss (or be working at all) if it didn’t pay the bills.

Developers and the market

While those involved in the F/OSS community know better than this, it is true that while the consumer may not be always right, he is always the king. Thus, it is essential that developers adapt themselves to the individual/enterprise mentality, because it won’t happen the other way around. If the objective is to expand the use of F/OSS and create the critical mass to ensure its primacy in PCs and other machines, F/OSS developers need users more than the other way around.

Scratching an itch is a very common expression among GPL developers. Today, most GPL developers are mainly "scratching their itches". And why shouldn’t they? After all, they are working for free, in their own spare time. But there are many itches around and not only developers have them. From complex new applications, additions or enhancements to their favourite programmes, to even "trivial" macros or templates: It should be obvious that there is an important demand that is not being met in the current state of affairs. The Open Code Market wants to address this, while at the same time trying to tackle the current scepticism of the end users: After all ... there is money involved.



The Open Code Market (OCM)

The Open Code Market is a free market dedicated to the purchase, commission, generation and distribution of software. Mainly (but not only) GPL Free Software.

The market promotes the creation of GPL code by connecting individuals and organisations in need of some application, patch, enhancement, or addition to a programme; with the developers who can carry out the job. In exchange, the developer is paid "to scratch someone else’s itch" instead of his own. All software created is then classified, added to a global repository, and released under the appropriate license (GPL being the default).

This solution helps to bring together two separated communities: Users and developers, cutting drastically (but not entirely) middlemen and their added costs.

In the eyes of many people, the Internet offered the possibility of bypassing middlemen and reaping the benefits of cheap mass distribution, leading to important economies of scale. As we see today, most of the success stories so far (Amazon, Google, etc.) are not new producers, but more efficient (and cheaper) middlemen.

The OCM wants to be a cheap middleman by using global open tenders for the contracted jobs and services to reduce costs. The reductions in costs are targeted to benefit mainly consumers, in order to foster their use of OCMs and the subsequent accumulation of an ever-larger pool of GPL software, which also should lead to lower costs. Finally, the emergence of multiple OCMs will help foster healthy competition and keep prices low.

RULES: Regulated and Unregulated Market

A free market is not an unregulated one. Like traffic, unregulated markets tend to be inefficient and unreliable. In order to avoid this, the OCM offers a set of rules and services to reduce the transaction costs and risks for both customers and developers.

Like the GPL License, the OCM wants to provide the customer with the maximum degree of freedom: And that also includes the possibility of bypassing the regulated market (its rules, services and commissions) by contacting and placing orders directly to developers — at their own risk. The obvious reason for not using the unregulated market is that: "On the Internet, nobody knows you’re a dog". By following the unregulated path, both buyer and seller are taking a transaction risk by trusting a) that the developer has the will and skills to create the required software on time and according to the specified requirements and b) that the customer will pay. This holds true even if both parties have had a prior and satisfactory relationship. Caveat Emptor, and Caveat Vendor.

For those who value peace of mind, the OCM provides rules and services to maximise value for money for the customer (through open bidding) and to reduce transaction risks by means of open and standard contracts for both sides. These rules and services are provided to help protect buyer and seller from each other, and from themselves. Examples of this can be the services provided by the Project Consultants and Project Managers, Security Auditing, etc. For the developer the rules ensure that, if the software produced fulfils the requested order, he or she will be paid.

GLOBAL OCM: Open to All

Developing countries

Another of the advantages of the Open Code Market is the possibility it offers to programmers or entrepreneurs in developing countries to participate in the global market on equal terms, either by becoming OCM developers or by creating their own OCM.

Multiple Markets

Like a geodesic structure, an increase in the number of nodes should lead to increased stability and strength of the whole system. Besides, it is also to be expected that many OCMs will appear following language and geographic patterns. Their emergence (and competition) is not only welcome by the OCM, but encouraged.

COST: The OCM will be cheap, but not for free.
The OCM is a business.

Although the OCM will certainly create many benefits for the Free/Open Source community by releasing GPL software and creating business for developers, it still is a for-profit business. The OCM will be delivering services both to customers and developers, and these will have to be paid for. Besides, investors in the OCM will also expect a return on their investment.

For developers, the OCM provides them with clients and software tools, and also works as a clearing house to collect their earnings. Customers of the OCM will receive and pay for most of the necessary services, the reason is simple as shown below:

At a very simplified level, a typical transaction in the OCM should be similar to this:

  1. The customer places an order for software
  2. The order goes to tender
  3. The developer creates the software and sends it to the OCM
  4. The OCM acts as clearing house by delivering the software to the client and the money to the developer
  5. The software is classified and added to the GPL repository

It should be obvious that such a simplified transaction would not work without added services and players, other than the client and the developer.

  1. The customer places an order for software
    It is unlikely that customers will place an order (even with a system of open tenders) unless they know roughly how much is a reasonable price for the software they commission. And this will be particularly true at the beginning of the OCM, while there still is no historical data to create benchmarks.

    Typical users are also not in the best position to define their needs in a way that a programmer will understand unequivocally, leading to constant arguments over "not delivering what was ordered". Finally, clients may not be aware that a GPL software package, similar to what they want, already exists.

  2. The order goes to tender
    Customers are not able to know which developers are really able to carry out their project, or to contact a significant number of them to ensure a fair tender, at the same time, developers will not dedicate time to participate in tenders unless they know that the customer will not cancel.

  3. The developer creates the software and sends it to the OCM
    While the customer may be able to tell if the software works as requested, it cannot identify buggy, poorly written software, let alone know if the software presents a security risk. Thus, the OCM will also have to provide services as required. Programmers also need to be classified according to their abilities, and ranked according to their performance through the use of scorecards.

  4. The OCM acts as clearing house by delivering the software to the client and the money to the developer
    Without the OCM in between, neither party will trust the other to deliver their side of the bargain, specially when both are in different countries. The OCM becomes again an impartial go-between.

  5. The software is classified and added to the GPL repository
    This last step is necessary to create a searchable database, understandable even to laymen searching for an application to their needs. The classification, storage, distribution and maintenance of the GPL Repository will need funds. All OCMs will be required to contribute with a percentage of their turnover towards providing the necessary funding. The GPL Repository should be run by a board representing all OCMs.

From this perspective, it is evident that in order for the market to function there must be other parties involved in the OCM, besides customers and developers. There will also be the need for services for the efficient functioning of the market, which will also be provided by tender. Service Providers, like programmers, will also have a ranking system.



Players in the Open Code Market


The OCM wishes to address the software needs of a wide variety of customers, from individuals, to organisations or government agencies.

Individual Clients

One of the benchmarks of the success of the OCM will be how well it caters to the needs of individual customers with simple requests. They may well become the most difficult customers: low margins and lots of work. But despite the troubles they will generate (and they will), individuals are likely to become the main source of publicity and revenue to the OCMs.


From Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) to Non Government Organisations (NGOs) most organisations need software to perform their work; and most of them use the same software. Software seems to follow Vilfredo Pareto’s 80/20 rule where a small number of applications meets the needs of the vast majority of users.

Taken as a groups, most enterprises and organisations around the world (dentists, architects, schools, shops, restaurants, etc.) tend to use a limited array of similar tools. It is here that large economies of scale can be achieved by creating the necessary software and constantly improving it, instead of building similar proprietary programmes from scratch. Thus, building on top, instead of in parallel.

Government Agencies

Although they have special requirements such as multi-level security, auditing, international tender rules, etc., governments will also benefit from the OCM.

Since Governments are normally banned from selling the software they develop, its release as Free Software is also an obvious solution. After all, tax payers have already paid for its development through their taxes.

Finally, Governments can also use the OCM as a cost-effective development aid tool by commissioning software or its translation/adaptation for governments of multiple developing countries or NGOs, through Official Development Aid funds.


Many developers (and not only in developed countries) are able to code software with intelligence and wit. However, they are not earning anything for it, other than the recognition and admiration of the many (but not that many yet) who follow the subject. Although the latest turnaround of the economy has left many programmers with time to code, they have no income to support themselves. Yet there is an opportunity that they, and many others, can take. They can start coding GPL Free Software, earning money and at the same time generating much more interest from other coders who cannot afford to earn money for their work.

At the end of the day, and regardless of the success of the OCM, the main winner will be all the people who can have access to even more Free Software.

Developers in far away countries also can show their skills and compete for software contracts and to create a reputation. Hopefully the OCMs will also become a reference of and for other work.

Service Providers

The services of others will be necessary for the running of the market; here is a brief description some of the most common.

Project Consultants

The Project Consultants (PCs) analyse the requirements of customers (make sure they are feasible) and define the project that will end in a finished programme. He (or she) decides if other code should be adapted or built from scratch, attaching a timespan to the project (or for each of the tasks to accomplish, if necessary) and an approximate cost. Other project consultants may peer-review his/her work, if the client so decides. After the client’s approval, the PC’s proposal will go to tender for programmers and services.

Project Managers

The Project Manager has a key role in the OCM, for it controls the whole project, from beginning to end. And it is his/her responsibility to that deliver the project on time, according to the specifications of the client. Fluid communications with the client (via e-mail, encrypted, and copied to the OCM) are important to ensure that the product is also to the liking of the client.

Project Managers will have to excel at many different tasks, that’s why many times PM Syndicates will form. Although some PMs will wish to work on their own.


The normal way to solve the inevitable misunderstandings and fights is through dialogue. But despite the fact that reasoning leads to better results than flaming, there will be a need for arbitrage and referees.

The refereeing services must not be the first, but the last option. Refereeing is the result of ill will, bad communications management, misunderstandings, a deficiency of the market, or plain bad luck; and the OCM regrets having to provide such services. Therefore, all profits made by refereeing will be passed on to the community: The OCMs will not make any money on them.

There will also be an increasing penalty for those who use and abuse the refereeing system for minor matters, or who use refereeing instead of making an effort to find a compromise. Mandatory payments will exist (and increase) for them.

Other Service Providers

Other types of Service Providers will appear over time as the OCM evolves and as the free market supply adapts and responds to the demand.


Syndicates are self-regulated groups of individuals; they can be temporary or open-ended. Syndicates should be self-regulated and interact with the market through one single person (or representative) who operates on their behalf. Members of a syndicate share responsibility for its actions.

Clients’ Syndicates

Complex programmes do not come cheap, that is, unless they are already available as GPL; creating or improving them may entail the need of significant resources.

Building on the spirit of collaborative work of the Open Source community, different users can create a syndicate by pooling their financial resources to commission a better, more complex programme, cheaper for everyone.

Liberto Syndicates — Freeing up the code In ancient Rome, slaves who had gained their freedom were named Libertos. In the same spirit, and like the many inspiring examples of purchasing and freeing of software (i.e. Blender) the OCM wants to contribute to "freeing up the code".

The OCM will encourage the purchase of the rights of proprietary software and its release to the community as GPL Free Software. To this end, any person or group will be able to create a Liberto Syndicate to liberate a programme.

Developers’ Syndicates

Just like customers, developers may also decide that it is in their interest to collaborate in the coding of large projects. One likely application of the Programmers’ Syndicates is to allow developers with different skills work together to maximise their efficiency. Those specialised at designing programmes or at coding them, can maximise their output by concentrating on what they do best.

How syndicates divide their work and share their revenue is up to them. However members of the Syndicate must acknowledge the work of their individual members by their personal names or by handles. Credit must be given to the actual person who does the work, even if the syndicate is also mentioned. Searches through the databases of code will help identify the author of the code and provide the deserved recognition for their work.

Some of these developers will end up leading a syndicate, and some of these syndicates will evolve into full-fledged companies. This should be welcomed as a sign that the Market works and generates enough interest — and revenue — to provide them will a full-time job.

Service Providers’ Syndicates

Service Providers’ Syndicates (SPS) for Programme Consultants, Programme Managers, etc. will generally act in the same way that other syndicates, except for special rules when involving SPS who need to keep an impartial stance (i.e. referees).

Other Syndicates

Many other types of syndicate may arise in the future. And the OCM will try to accommodate as many (useful ones) as possible.

Other Players

It is natural that, as the OCM evolves, other market players will appear.

For instance business opportunities will be obvious for retail distributors of complete packages specialised in putting together a package of GPL Software (i.e. a complete solution for dental clinics, architect offices or any other small business or NGOs) and selling its implementation, support, etc. By using such package, these organisations can rely on the constant evolution and improvement of the package as hundreds of similar businesses around the world contribute to improve them by requesting new patches or enhancements. The community as a whole benefits from the ideas of any of its users.

Another likely application of syndicates will be to offer 24/7 Web-based support services by creating a time-zone syndicat with members in different time zones.



Functioning of the Market

Now that all the players and the basic rules have been laid down, the functioning of the market can be detailed further. Among the different combinations of services that a customer might choose, one could be the following:

  1. An individual or organisation needs an application, or an extra feature to an existing application, and posts its requirements to a Project Consultant.

  2. The Project Consultant assesses the needs and (if necessary) breaks down the project into different tasks, assigning a time and a cost to each of them. One of the main priorities is to identify at this stage as much GPL Software as possible that can be recycled to fulfil the project.

  3. This assessment is peer-reviewed and sent to the customer for approval. After his commitment to the project and a down payment, the project is assigned to a Project Manager, and goes to tender.

  4. The whole project is then put to tender globally among programmers. Depending on the size of the project, single programmers or programmes syndicates compete for it in an international open bidding.

    Use of GPL software that had been overlooked in step two is not only not penalised, but encouraged. This also helps ensure that the project manager has indeed identified as much GPL code already available as possible.

  5. After being created and before the project is delivered, there is a peer review at Project Manager level to ensure that it complies with the client’s specifications.

  6. The code is then-reviewed for bugs, coding efficiency, security, etc. Then the OCM releases the client’s payment to the developer and the software to the client.

  7. The client gives a valuation of the project. This valuation adds to the rating of the programmers and any other of the services requested (Project Manager, Project Consultant, etc.)

  8. The whole project, except what could identify the customer (logo, name of company, etc.) is documented, catalogued and published as GPL. The new software and code are included in the global database for re-use in future projects, or to be downloaded by anyone.



Who is Who in the Market

One should know better than to trust the other end of the Internet.

Anyone involved in the OCM will be curious to know who is at the other end of the transaction, or even of a simple communication.

The right to anonymity

Whenever possible members of the market will have the right to anonymity in the OCMs. Any right to anonymity that has been given, cannot be taken away. Members will be given the option to use handles instead of names, although sometimes contacting them "officially" will be necessary (i.e. for payments, etc).

Ranking System: Scorecards

"... knowing — not guessing — about what you can risk is often the critical difference between getting away with it or drilling a fifty-foot hole in mother earth."
General Chuck Yeager, former U.S. Air Force test pilot.

A scorecard and ranking system will be necessary for the market to work properly. Historical records of the performance of all participants in the market will be one of the basic elements in the relationship players want to have with one another. Keeping a good and clean scorecard is an excellent idea.

Licensing System

Some of the participants in the market, will be offering services necessary for the functioning of the market. These players will have to demonstrate a level of knowledge sufficient for the tasks to be performed. Examples of this can be Arbitrage, Security Auditors, etc.

OCM Market Licensing System

At the same time, and while the setting up of different Open Code Markets will be free, it is convenient to also have an open licensing system to certify all markets which comply with a set of common OCM rules.




Open Standards

The OCMs will operate on open standards to ensure its independence from any given supplier, its ability to replicate itself free of fees and legal challenges, and to guarantee its continuity.

Secure communications

All communications between the members of the market will be encrypted through F/OSS. E-mail will be encrypted by default with a secure open standard (i.e. GPG).

When all other messages are plaintext, a single encrypted message is easily spotted. Encrypted communications as a standard are a necessity in order to change the "pin in a haystack" paradigm into a "pin in a pinstack", where all messages are encrypted.

Insurance policies

Markets should rely more on probabilities than on luck. The possibility of theft, accidents, or other problems exists, but probabilities are what matter.

Players in the market should be able to cover their exposure to it, and others, through insurance policies. As the market improves, it will be easier for actuaries to predict an event, and in due course, insurance companies may be interested in offering products for OCM participants.


In a world where terrorist attacks have become more daring, the centralised development of key software is irresponsible. Concentrations of knowledge (be it Redmond, Palo Alto or Wall Street) creates "high quality" targets for attacks. Since there is no neural centre that can be hit to bring everything down, Free Software and the OCMs offer the possibility of globalised distribution of knowledge impervious to an attack. Records of forums and discussions are kept distributed, and since the source code running the market is also readily available: as long as there are enough people around the world to study and maintain it, no one is indispensable.

OCM Software License

In order to provide the maximum information and assurances, the software running the OCMs will be always licensed under the GPL License (Ver. 2.0 or higher), completely open for all to inspect and improve.



Proposed Projects

TYPE: Software Application

As the overview above suggests, this project is ambitious and will require intensive programming. However, most of the pieces are already available as GPL and waiting to be put together.

TYPE: Software Application
Name: A "GNU/GPL Google". [Project open to name proposals, avoiding the GoogleTM. Is GNUGLE acceptable?]

Along with freedom of code, freedom of information is also essential. Today, a good proxy for estimating the level of freedom of information in any country is the number of Web sites it blocks.

Recent developments (like the agreement between Yahoo and the PRC to restrict access to information in Yahoo’s Chinese language Web site, or the SARS virus information cover-up) shows how easy it is to deny essential information to vast parts of the global population, and even to change their perception of reality by cutting access to different versions of events. With the exponential adoption by users of search engines such as Google, the need to ensure that the information received is complete and accurate (and also that it has not been censored or manipulated) has become a necessity -already today. In this case, the freedom, transparency, and availability of the code of the search engine is essential to guarantee the transparency of the information received. Proprietary software cannot guarantee this.

Under these circumstances, it is imperative to create a GPL searching engine to provide an "impartial" and complete access to information. Each person may have his/her own information filter, but what goes through it should be a personal decision, and not left (or allowed) to governments, corporations or other organisations.



Partners and Investors

Despite its brief life, the Open Code Market has already received (and still welcomes) expressions of interest from investors, developers and prospective participants in the market.



Web sites

The following Web sites have already been registered:
The .org site should be dedicated to open and clean organisation of the market, its advocacy and defence. The rights of this domain should be in the hands of an independent organisation where all OCMs are represented.
The main transport, central exchange and repository of code. Also this site should be managed by another foundation, with a solid charter defending the values of Free Software.
Of course I am interested in this idea and want to compete with other markets. So I am keeping the .com for myself ... just in case the OCM works.

As for you, you are free to choose another name of your liking and start your own OCM.

Other registered domains:

OCMs dedicated to GPL only:




Blender (
ECLAS Thesaurus (
Electronic Privacy Information Centre (
Free Software Foundation (


GPL License (
Free Documentation License (

Linux (

Cartoon caption: "On the Internet, nobody knows you’re a dog" originally published in New Yorker, volume 69, number 20 (5 July 1993), p. 61; see also

Chuck Yeager and Leo Janos. Yeager: An Autobiography. New York: Bantam Books, 1985. End of article


About the Author

Jordi Carrasco-Muñoz is the Economic and Political Adviser of the European Commission’s Delegation to Vietnam. (Actually, the name appears in several versions, as Jordi Carrasco-Munoz or Jordi Carrasco-Muñoz, since the Spanish letter ñ is not always correctly displayed properly in documents).

Other Open Source writings:
Free/Libre Open Source Software as Official Development Aid
Presentation at the eGOVOS Conference (Washington D.C., October 2002).
Web: (in development)

Editorial history

Paper received 14 June 2003; accepted 6 October 2003.

Contents Index

Copyright ©2003, First Monday

Copyright ©2003, Jordi Carrasco-Muñoz

The open code market by Jordi Carrasco-Muñoz
First Monday, volume 8, number 11 (November 2003),